Homework: The Enlightenment valued method--following the proper form or procedure or set of steps, which is necessary to reach a good result. This included logic and good manners--and in music it meant following a clearly organized formal structure, with a pattern and progression that the mind can understand. The idea is, music has to have, and to make apparent, its proper organization. Consider the two pieces below by Haydn. What does the form do? Describe, in a basic way, which section follows which. How does the music change and develop through the form? What is the feeling and what are the changes of feeling? (Trust yourself in listening to these; it is not a difficult thing but something natural, based on what you hear. You don't have to be perfectly precise about technical things.) How does "Classical" formality compare to the Gallant or Sensitive style we heard before?
Homework: How do the following three examples express the Enlightenment ideal of man as a rational being? There are several aspects to consider including formality and patterns and balance, light versus darkness, lightness vs heaviness, optimism vs pessimism, and the relationship of reason & emotion. Emphasize your points by comparison to contrasting musical examples we have heard in class before. (If you wish, you might also comment on the similarity or difference of these three pieces from the point of view of national style.)
The chart below is from Google NGram, which measures the usage of words in books over time. An interesting way to show the varying priority and attention given to the concept of reason over time! (Of course this measures the usage of the word in all its senses, not especially the concept of man's ability to form abstractions. But the other usages are of "reason", as in "He didn't have a good reason for doing that," are closely related.)
Homework: The mid-1700s saw a relatively brief, transitional style of music called the "Gallant" or "Sensitive" Style, exemplified in the music of the first two sons of JS Bach: Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. How is their music different from the music of their father? The "Gallant" is a Germanic school of music--but which other European culture does it move toward? How does this style move us away from the Baroque style and toward the later, Classical style of Mozart?
WF Bach -
CPE Bach -
Homework 16: We heard many different musical examples in class. They are listed below in case you are interested. For our homework, consider these examples of music by Domenico Scarlatti, who worked at the royal courts in Spain and Portugal. What is uniquely "Spanish" about this music as opposed to the other styles of music we have heard? (The numbers are from Ralph Kirkpatrick who numbered the sonatas in a 1953 print edition.)
Here are some other examples we heard in class, in case you'd like to hear them again. (However, these are not the focus of the homework)
Below are links to Bach's Badinerie for Flute & Strings, and for his Air on the G String